Keywords

List of Keywords Article by Article

The legal issues dealt with in each case are summarized in a list of Keywords, chosen from a thesaurus of terms taken (in most cases) directly from the text of the European Convention on Human Rights and additional Protocols.

Searching with these keywords will enable you to find a group of documents with similar legal content.

The list below supplements the list available via the Keywords tab on the Hudoc search portal. 

European Convention on Human Rights

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European Convention on Human Rights

Article 1

[Obligation to respect human rights]

High Contracting Party (1)
Responsibility of States
Jurisdiction of States

Article 2

[Right to life]

Expulsion (2)
Extradition (2)

Positive obligations (2)

Paragraph 1

Life
Death penalty

Prescribed by law (2)
Accessibility (2)
Foreseeability (2)
Safeguards against abuse (2)
Competent court (2)
Effective investigation (2)

Paragraph 2

Use of force
Absolutely necessary

Defence from unlawful violence
Effect lawful arrest
Prevent escape
Quell riot or insurrection

Article 3

[Prohibition of torture]

Torture

Inhuman treatment
Inhuman punishment
Degrading treatment
Degrading punishment
Effective investigation (3)
Expulsion (3)
Extradition (3)
Positive obligations (3)

Article 4

[Prohibition of slavery and forced labour]

Paragraph 1

Slavery
Servitude
Trafficking in human beings

Paragraph 2

Forced labour
Compulsory labour

Paragraph 3

A)  Work required of detainees
Work required to be done during conditional release

B)  Service of military character
Alternative civil service

C)  Service exacted in case of emergency
Service exacted in case of calamity

D)  Normal civic obligations

Article 5

[Right to liberty and security]

Paragraph 1

Liberty of person
Security of person
Deprivation of liberty (5)
Procedure prescribed by law
Lawful arrest or detention

A)  Conviction (5)
After conviction
Competent court (5)

B)  Lawful order of a court
Non-compliance with court order
Secure fulfilment of obligation prescribed by law

C)  Bringing before competent legal authority
Criminal offence (5)
Reasonable suspicion
Reasonably necessary to prevent offence
Reasonably necessary to prevent fleeing

D)  Minors
Educational supervision
Bringing before competent authority

E)  Prevention of spreading of infectious diseases
Persons of unsound mind
Alcoholics
Drug addicts
Vagrants

F)  Prevent unauthorised entry into country
Expulsion
Extradition

Paragraph 2

Prompt information (5)
Information in language understood (5)
Information on reasons for arrest
Information on charge

Paragraph 3

Judge or other officer exercising judicial power
Brought promptly before judge or other officer
Trial within a reasonable time
Release pending trial
Length of pre-trial detention
Reasonableness of pre-trial detention
Conditional release
Guarantees to appear for trial

Paragraph 4

Review of lawfulness of detention
Take proceedings
Review by a court
Speediness of review
Procedural guarantees of review
Order release

Paragraph 5

Compensation (5)

Article 6

[Right to a fair trial]

Civil proceedings
Criminal proceedings
Administrative proceedings
Constitutional proceedings
Disciplinary proceedings
Enforcement proceedings

Paragraph 1

Civil rights and obligations

Determination
Dispute

Criminal charge
Determination

Access to court
Fair hearing
Adversarial trial
Equality of arms
Legal aid

Public hearing
Oral hearing
Exclusion of press
Exclusion of public

Necessary in a democratic society (6)
Protection of morals (6)
Protection of public order (6)
National security (6)
Protection of juveniles (6)
Protection of private life of the parties
Extent strictly necessary
Prejudice interests of justice

Reasonable time

Independent tribunal

Impartial tribunal

Tribunal established by law

Public judgment

Paragraph 2
Charged with a criminal offence
Presumption of innocence
Proved guilty according to law

Paragraph 3
Charged with a criminal offence
Rights of defence

A)  Information on nature and cause of accusation
Prompt information (6)
Information in language understood (6)
Information in detail

B)  Preparation of defence
Adequate time
Adequate facilities
Access to relevant files

C)  Defence in person
Defence through legal assistance
Legal assistance of his own choosing
Insufficient means
Free legal assistance
Required by interests of justice

D)  Witnesses
Examination of witnesses
Obtain attendance of witnesses
Same conditions

E)  Free assistance of interpreter

Article 7

[No punishment without law]

Paragraph 1
Nullum crimen sine lege
Nulla poena sine lege
Conviction (7)
Heavier penalty
Criminal offence (7)
Time when the act or omission committed
Retroactivity

Paragraph 2
Criminal offence (7)
General principles of law recognised by civilised nations

Article 8

[Right to respect for private and family life]

Expulsion (8)
Extradition (8)
Positive obligations (8)

Paragraph 1
Respect for private life
Respect for family life
Respect for home
Respect for correspondence

Paragraph 2
Public authority (8)
Interference (8)
Prescribed by law (8)
Accessibility (8)
Foreseeability (8)
Safeguards against abuse (8)

Necessary in a democratic society (8)
National security (8)
Public safety (8)
Economic well-being of the country (8)
Prevention of disorder (8)
Prevention of crime (8)
Protection of health (8)
Protection of morals (8)
Protection of the rights and freedoms of others (8)

Article 9

[Freedom of thought conscience and religion]

Paragraph 1
Freedom of thought
Freedom of conscience
Freedom of religion
Change religion or belief
Manifest religion or belief
Worship
Teaching
Practice
Observance

Paragraph 2
Interference (9)
Prescribed by law (9)
Accessibility (9)
Foreseeability (9)
Safeguards against abuse (9)
Necessary in a democratic society (9)
Public safety (9)
Protection of public order (9)
Protection of health (9)
Protection of morals (9)
Protection of the rights and freedoms of others (9)

Article 10

[Freedom of expression-general]

Positive obligations (10)

Paragraph 1
Freedom of expression
Freedom to hold opinions
Freedom to receive information
Freedom to impart information
Freedom to receive ideas
Freedom to impart ideas
Interference (10)
Public authority (10)
Regardless of frontiers
Licensing of broadcasting enterprises

Paragraph 2
Duties and responsibilities
Interference (10)
Prescribed by law (10)
Accessibility (10)
Foreseeability (10)
Safeguards against abuse (10)
Necessary in a democratic society (10)
National security (10)
Territorial integrity
Public safety (10)
Prevention of disorder (10)
Prevention of crime (10)
Protection of health (10)
Protection of morals (10)
Protection of the rights of others (10)
Protection of the reputation of others (10)
Preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence
Maintaining the authority and impartiality of the judiciary

Article 11

[Freedom of assembly and association]

Paragraph 1
Freedom of peaceful assembly
Freedom of association
Form and join trade unions
Not join trade unions
Interests of members

Paragraph 2
Interference (11)
Prescribed by law (11)
Accessibility (11)
Foreseeability (11)
Safeguards against abuse (11)
Necessary in a democratic society (11)
National security (11)
Public safety (11)
Prevention of disorder (11)
Prevention of crime (11)
Protection of health (11)
Protection of morals (11)
Protection of the rights and freedoms of others (11)
Members of armed forces
Members of police
Members of administration

Article 12

[Right to marry]

Men and women
Marriageable age
Marry
Found a family
National law (12)

Article 13

[Right to an effective remedy]

Effective remedy
National authority
Arguable claim

Article 14

[Prohibition of discrimination]

Discrimination
Sex
Race
Colour
Language
Religion
Political or other opinion
National origin
Social origin
National minority
Property
Birth
Other status
Comparable situation
Objective and reasonable justification

Article 15

[Derogation in time of emergency]

Paragraph 1
War
Public emergency
Threat to the life of the nation
Derogation
Extent strictly required by situation
International obligations

Paragraph 3
Notification of a derogation

Article 16

[Restrictions on political activity of aliens - general]

Restrictions on political activity of aliens

Article 17

[Prohibition of abuse of rights]

Destruction of rights and freedoms
Excessive limitations on rights and freedoms

Article 18

[Limitation on use of restrictions on rights]

Restrictions for unauthorised purposes

Article 19

[Establishment of the court]

High Contracting Party (19)
Engagements undertaken by Parties
Ensure observance of engagements

Article 33 (former Article 24)

[Inter-state cases - general]

Inter-State cases
Applicant State Party
Defendant State Party (33)

Article 34 (former Article 25)

[Individual applications]

Petition
Defendant State Party (34)
Individual
Non-governmental organisation
Group of individuals
Victim
Actio popularis
Locus standi
Hinder the exercise of the right of petition

Article 35

[Admissibility criteria]

Paragraph 1 (former Article 26)
Exhaustion of domestic remedies
Exemption from exhaustion of domestic remedies
Effective domestic remedy
Six month period
Final domestic decision
Continuing situation

Paragraph 2 (former Article 27)
Anonymous petition
Same as matter already examined
Same as matter submitted to other procedure
Relevant new information

Paragraph 3 (former Article 27)
Ratione temporis
Continuing situation
Ratione loci
Ratione materiae
Ratione personae
Manifestly ill-founded
Abuse of the right of petition

Paragraphe 3 sub-section b
No significant disadvantage
Continued examination not justified
Case duly considered by a domestic tribunal

Paragraph 4
Rejection of application at any stage of the proceedings

Article 37 (former Article 30)

[Striking out applications]

Striking out applications
Absence of intention to pursue petition
Matter resolved
Continued examination not justified

Article 38 (former Article 28)

[Examination of the case and friendly settlement proceedings]

Paragraph 1 a)
Examination of the case
Friendly settlement proceedings

Paragraph 1 b)
Obligation to furnish all necessary facilities

Article 39

[Finding of a friendly settlement]

Friendly settlement

Article 41 (former Article 50)

[Just satisfaction-general]

Just satisfaction (41)
Pecuniary damage
Non-pecuniary damage
Costs and expenses
Partial reparation by national law
Injured party
Jurisdiction to give orders or grant injunctions
Experts' costs
Default interest
Causal link
Overall assessment
Freedom from attachment (41)

Article 46 (former Articles 53 and 54)

 [Binding force and execution of judgments]

Pilot judgment
Systemic problem
General measures
Individual measures

Paragraph 1
Abide by judgment
Parties to case

Paragraph 2
Execution of judgment
Just satisfaction (46)
Interest for delay (46)
Freedom from attachment (46)
Individual measures (46)
Reopening of proceedings (46)
Pardon (46)
Striking out of criminal records (46)
Measures of a general character (46)
Legislative amendments (46)
Changes of regulations (46)
Changes in case-law (46)

Article 47 (former Protocol no. 2)

[Advisory opinions - general]

Request by the Committee of Ministers
Advisory opinions

Article 48 (former Protocol no. 2)

[Advisory jurisdiction of the court - general]

Advisory jurisdiction of the Court

Article 52 (former Article 57)

[Request by the secretary general – general]

Request by the Secretary General
Report to the Secretary General

Article 53 (former Article 60)

Rights otherwise guaranteed

Article 54 (former Article 61)

Powers of the Committee of Ministers

Article 55 (former Article 62)

Renunciation of other means of settlement

Article 56 (former Article 63)

[Territorial application - general]

Territorial application (56)
Local requirements

Article 57 (former Article 64)

[Reservations - general]

Reservations
A particular provision of the Convention
Law then in force
Prohibition of reservations of a general character
Need of brief statement of the law
Interpretative declaration

Article 58 (former Article 65)

Denunciation
Six months' notice
Notification of denunciation
Cessation of membership of the Council of Europe

Article 59 (former Article 66)

[Signature and ratification - general]

Signature and ratification

Former Article 25

Competence of the Commission
Declaration recognising competence

Former Article 32

Measures taken following a decision
Just satisfaction (32)
Interest for delay (32)
Freedom from attachment (32)
Individual measures (32)
Reopening of proceedings (32)
Pardon (32)
Striking out of criminal records (32)
Measures of a general character (32)
Legislative amendments (32)
Changes of regulations (32)
Changes in case-law (32)
High Contracting Party (32)
Publication of the report
Friendly settlement (32)

Former Article 44

 Capacity to bring a case before the Court

Former Article 45

 Jurisdiction of the Court

Former Article 46

Declaration recognising jurisdiction
Condition of reciprocity
Ratione temporis
Continuing situation
Ratione loci
Ratione personae
Ratione materiae

Former Article 47

Three month period

Former Article 48

State whose national is a victim

Former Article 49

Dispute as to jurisdiction

Additional Protocols

Article 1 of Protocol no. 1

[Protection of property]

Possessions
Peaceful enjoyment of possessions
Interference (P1-1)
Deprivation of property
Public interest (P1-1)
Prescribed by law (P1-1)
Accessibility (P1-1)
Foreseeability (P1-1)
Safeguards against abuse (P1-1)
General principles of international law (P1-1)
Control of the use of property
General interest
Secure the payment of taxes
Secure the payment of contributions or penalties

Article 2 of Protocol no. 1

[Right to education - general]

Right to education
Respect for parents' religious convictions
Respect for parents' philosophical convictions

Article 3 of Protocol no. 1

[Right to free elections - general]

Right to free elections
Periodic elections
Elections by secret ballot
Free expression of opinion of people
Choice of the legislature
Vote
Stand for election

Article 4 of Protocol no. 1

Territorial application (P1)

Article 6 of Protocol no. 1

Signature and ratification (P1)

Article 1 of Protocol no. 4

[Prohibition of imprisonment for debt - general]

Prohibition of imprisonment for debt
Deprivation of liberty (P4-1)

Article 2 of Protocol no. 4

[Freedom of movement - general]

Paragraph 1
Freedom of movement
Freedom to choose residence
Lawfully within the territory

Paragraph 2
Freedom to leave a country

Paragraph 3
Interference (P4-2)
Prescribed by law (P4-2)
Accessibility (P4-2)
Foreseeability (P4-2)
Safeguards against abuse (P4-2)
Necessary in a democratic society (P4-2)
National security (P4-2)
Public safety (P4-2)
Protection of health (P4-2)
Protection of morals (P4-2)
Protection of rights and freedoms of others (P4-2)
Protection of public order (P4-2)
Prevention of crime (P4-2)
Restrictions in particular areas
Public interest (P4-2)

Article 3 of Protocol no. 4

[Prohibition of expulsion of nationals]

Paragraph 1
Prohibition of expulsion of a national
Prohibition of collective expulsion of nationals

Paragraph 2
Enter own country

Article 4 of Protocol no. 4

[Prohibition of collective expulsion of aliens - general]

Prohibition of collective expulsion of aliens

Article 5 of Protocol no. 4

Territorial application (P4)

Article 7 of Protocol no. 4

Signature and ratification (P4)

Article 1 of Protocol no. 6

[Abolition of the death penalty - general]

Abolition of the death penalty

Article 2 of Protocol no. 6

[Death penalty in time of war - general]

Death penalty in time of war
War (P6-2)
Imminent threat of war
Prescribed by law (P6-2)
Accessibility (P6-2)
Foreseeability (P6-2)
Safeguards against abuse (P6-2)
Communication of the law to the Secretary General

Article 4 of Protocol no. 6

[Prohibition of reservations - general]

Prohibition of reservations

Article 5 of Protocol no. 6

Territorial application (P6)

Article 7 of Protocol no. 6

Signature and ratification (P6)

Article 1 of Protocol no. 7

[Procedural safeguards relating to expulsion of aliens]

Paragraph 1
Expulsion of an alien
Lawfully resident
Prescribed by law (P7-1)
Accessibility (P7-1)
Foreseeability (P7-1)
Safeguards against abuse (P7-1)
Contest expulsion
Review of expulsion decision
Competent authority
Represented

Paragraph 2

Expulsion before exercising procedural rights
Necessary in a democratic society (P7-1)
Protection of public order (P7-1)
National security (P7-1)

Article 2 of Protocol no. 7

[Right of appeal in criminal matters]

Conviction (P7-2)
Criminal offence (P7-2)
Competent court (P7-2)
Review of conviction
Review of sentence
Higher tribunal
National law (P7-2)
Minor offences
Trial at first instance by the highest tribunal
Conviction following appeal against acquittal

Article 3 of Protocol no. 7

[Compensation for wrongful conviction]

Compensation (P7-3)
Miscarriage of justice
Conviction (P7-3)
Criminal offence (P7-3)
New or newly discovered facts (P7-3)
National law (P7-3)
Non-disclosure of fact by convicted person

Article 4 of Protocol no. 7

[Right not to be tried or punished twice - general]

Right not to be tried or punished twice
Criminal offence (P7-4)
Conviction (P7-4)
Acquittal
Jurisdiction of the same State
Reopening of case
New or newly discovered facts (P7-4)
Fundamental defect in proceedings

Article 5 of Protocol no. 7

[Equality between spouses - general]

Equality between spouses
Spouses
Relations with children
As to marriage
During marriage
In the event of dissolution of marriage
Measures necessary in the interests of children

Article 6 of Protocol no. 7

Territorial application (P7)

Article 8 of Protocol no. 7

Signature and ratification (P7)

Article 1 of Protocol no. 12

Prohibition of discrimination

Article 1 of Protocol no. 13

Abolition of death penalty

Abolition of the death penalty in all circumstances

Keywords of general application

Non-derogable rights and freedoms
Positive obligations
Proportionality
Margin of appreciation
Interference ( )
Prescribed by law ( )
Accessibility
Foreseeability
Safeguards against abuse